Great Buckingham Films

Great Buckingham Films

"Doing a Grand Job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F

During the two wars, World War I and II, a large number of posters grabbed the public's attention in each country. These posters were used by governments to promote recruitment and encourage people to join the armed services. These recruiting posters served as a notice to advertise the war were also used for propaganda purposes, persuasion and motivation. This essay will analyse the poster captioned, "Doing a Grand Job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F. This poster was used by the Australian Air Force during the Second World War, especially to recruit women.

Propaganda refers to ideas or statements that may be false or exaggerated. According to Jowett and O'Donnell (1999), "propaganda is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behaviour to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist". The aim of the messages of propaganda is to influence the public's thoughts, opinions or behaviour. The "Doing a Grand Job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F propaganda poster, convinced the target audience to enter the military in order to fight for their own country and family. This essay will demonstrate the signification of the war poster in terms of the first and second order of signification, focusing on the gender ideology in the second order.

Signification is composed of two elements; denotation and connotation. According to Fiske (1990, pp. 85-86), the first order describes "the relationship between the signifier and signified", that derive ideas from Ferdinand de Saussure (1857 – 1913), a modern linguist. The second order of the signification describes the "interaction that occurs when the sign meets the feelings or emotions of the users and the values of their culture", that used as the term by Roland Barthes (1915-1980), a semiotician.

The war poster in this essay, "Doing a Grand Job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F (Northfield 1942) was used to recruit women to the Australian Air Force.

Large numbers of men had been sent to the battle fields during the two world wars. Most industries at that time concentrated on the war. Prior to World War II, most women did not do jobs other than household work. With most men away at war, women needed to support their families. These needs lead to the use of women in many new job opportunities created by the government. For this reason, in March 1941, The Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) was formed as the first and largest of the World War II Australian Women's services. Furthermore, women worked for the Air Force to assist male wireless telegraphers for the first time. Until WAAAF was disbanded in December 1947, approximately 27,000 women had worked. The women were accepted into 73 different positions, including highly skilled technical employment, such as telegrapher, armament worker, electrician, fitter, flight mechanic, fabric worker, instrument maker and meteorological assistant (National Foundation for Australian Women 2008).

In the left of the poster, there is a woman, oblique standing, wearing a blue jacket, a black necktie, a gray shirt, and a blue hat and gazing at the sky. In the bottom-right of the poster, an office different place from the woman, there are two women who wear the same blue clothes with the woman. The left woman of them sits on the chair, wears a headset – a pair of headphones with a microphone and writes something on the paper on the desk. The right woman also sits on the chair and typewrites. In the middle-right of the poster, there are two fighter planes behind outside of the office where two women are. Left one stands on the land in front of a plane garage around three people and right one in front of other garage stands by to take off. In addition one person who have a note-board and wears a bag, a helmet and etc., looks at the right plane. In top-right corner of the poster, there are two fighter planes flying in the sky.

The woman is depicted in the materials of the circumstance of the airfield, which suggests a strong connection between them. The woman is wearing a blue jacket, hat and a black necktie, which appears her from this uniform - her job and blue is symbol colour of the air force. She gazes at the sky where two planes are flying that reminds she work for the air force. The way that she looks at the sky, giving a long look with a smile, is reminiscent that she is proud of her self working for the air force. The blue colour conveys reader's attention to the two women in the office. Their jobs as telegrapher and typewriting suggest they also work proudly for the air force. Between sky and the office, the fighter plane standing by, indicates that two places, airfield and office, are different places and the two women are in a safe place.

The text at the top of the poster, "Doing a Grand Job!" explains what they are doing within all these elements. The key word of the text, GRAND, suggests that they work but it is not for the money, they have grand jobs for the country. The text at the bottom of the poster, "Join the W.A.A.A.F" conveys the reader to the final aim of this poster. These bold capital letters do not explain what W.A.A.A.F stands for, but the continued sentence, "AND PLAY YOUR PART IN THE BIG TASK AHEAD", suggests that the grand job is your part as telegrapher and typewriting in the 'big task' – not use WAR. Moreover, through the next sentence, "Apply – RAAF recruiting centre or local committee", the poster explains that how apply this grand job.

Therefore, this poster portrays legitimately that women can work for the air force, but not as a solder. Their 'grand' job is supporting the military where men fight. Zwingel (2004, p. 4) states that women's activities that they did for the military, country and family in the war are hardly recognised by men. Furthermore, women's parts do need hard work, so it is indicated as "play" and the "big task" is not women's part. Women just play in the men's war. It still realise that the women did not fight for keeping-peace, they just work for job making money and they are remembered behind men who were at battle field.

In conclusion, during the World War II, there were large numbers of women worked for the air force. Even though their job was not related to participate actively in the warfare, they fought the war indirectly by supporting the military at the base or by doing groundwork or by providing their domestic services to military. However, women were recognised as supporters of men who worked for country. In addition, these jobs were seen as those which were noble and respectable.

Fiske, J. 1990, Introduction to Communication Studies, 2nd edn, Routledge, London.

Jowett, G.S and O'Donnell, V. 1999, Propaganda and Persuasion, 3rd den, Sage Publications, London.

National Foundation for Australian Women 2008, Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) (1941 - 1947), National Foundation for Australian Women , viewed 28 April 2008, <>.

Northfield, J. 1942, "Doing a grand job!" Join the W.A.A.A.F, poster, Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

Zwingel, S. 2004, Gendered responsibilities for war and peace. Strategies of political, socio-economic and psychological reconstruction in post-war Germany, American Political Science Association, Chicago, viewed 28 April 2008, <>.

The Significance of YouTube

The new movie, Speed Racer (2008) directed by the Wachowski Brothers, who directed The Matrix trilogy, is coming soon. Well, where will you go to see its trailer? Right, YouTube!

YouTube is one of the video sharing websites based on users' activities, such as uploading, viewing and sharing video clips. This website has opened for approximately three years; however, its results are incredibly success. "In January 2008, nearly 79 million viewers watched more than three billion user-posted videos on YouTube" (Yen 2008, para. 9). This essay will examine this website, focusing on its importance and effects.

Broadcast Yourself
YouTube is simply defined as sharing video clips website, but its contents-videos are not simply defined because of their variety of kinds. Movie trailer (official and fan made), music video (original and user created), fun video (home video and captured TV), promotion video (commercial and non-commercial), accidents (vehicle and autos), news, people, animals, sports, etc., the videos on YouTube are enormous amount of genre. Moreover, the linked videos that related to the video watched by user at the moment lead to user's interests to keep stay in YouTube. The users of YouTube absolutely realise that "Internet video is a powerful medium" (Fyfe 2008, para. 2). Even though all kind of videos are not able to see (because of censorship to protect users' emotion against some videos, such as very strong violence), YouTube has unlimited genre videos. Today, many of users use YouTube as a place of discussion. They show (not write) their opinion and also get the feedback through some people's videos titled "RE:". YouTube's motto, "Broadcast Yourself" could aim this phenomenon. For example, there are so many contents related to sex, but all contents that are written a word "sex" in their title, are not adult videos. Some of them show users' (in this case, 'creators' is correct.) opinions against sex contents. In addition, the creators, who have opposing opinions about sex contents, use half-naked woman photos as the video still on the profile of its video. Ironically, to express (and 'broadcast') against sex contents, the users of opposing opinions use traditional sex contents.

User-Created Content

YouTube has promoted the User-Created Contents that is "one of the main features of the participative web but the participative web is a wider concept and comprises various forms of media and creative works (written, audio, visual and combined) created by Internet and technology users" (OECD 2007, p. 17). The meaning of user on media field in the past was just receiver. However, they are not receiver now in terms of the User-Created Content with Web 2.0 that "aims to facilitate creativity, information sharing, and, most notably, collaboration among users" (Wikipedia 2008, para. 1).

A duo of college students, Anthony Padilla and Ian Hecox, has uploaded their created contents, such as, writing, filming, acting and editing in their own skits and "music videos", by the nickname, Smosh. Their contents make them famous and their channel becomes as the most subscribed by over 336,000 subscribers, as of April 2008. The amount of Smosh's videos, 48, is about one hundred times less than 4,740 videos of Universal Music Group that one of the major music groups. However, Universal Music Group's channel is subscribed by about 269,000 subscribers (YouTube 2008). In this case, the number of these shows what users want to watch is not always big budget videos, and also everybody can be a creator who obtains big buzz.

Time's Person of the Year: You
Time, American weekly news magazine, announced, "Time's person of the year for 2006 is you". According to Time (2006, para. 9), 'you' have seized the reins of the global media, founded and framed the new digital democracy, worked for nothing and beaten the pros at their own game. Who are 'you'? "It's a story about community and collaboration on a scale never seen before. It's about the cosmic compendium of knowledge Wikipedia and the million-channel people's network YouTube and the online metropolis MySpace". Thus, the 'you' is people who create all kinds of media contents that "wrest power from the few and help one another for nothing and how that will not only change the world, but also change the way the world changes" (Time 2006, para. 3). 'You' are not just received the news produced by media; 'you' are media as self production that created own news. Moreover, 'you' are not just watching movies acted by famous actors and actress; 'you' become a hero/heroine in your own movies.

YouTube is a website, composited of video contents that are uploaded, created and shared by users. YouTube's success has realised what contents have moved from passive media, such major newspaper companies and broadcasting stations, to active media, such as fun home videos and showing opinion of one self. Now, the term, 'major powerful media' also has been moved by its amount of 'subscription'.

Fyfe, Kristen 2008, 'YouTube's Great Influence - for Good and for Ill', American Family News Network, 10 April, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

Grossman, Lev 2006, 'Time's Person of the Year: You', Time, 13 December, viewed 23 April 2008, <,9171,1569514,00.html>.

OECD 2007, Participative Web and User-Created Content - Web 2.0, Wikis and Social Networking, OECD Publications, Paris, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

Yen, Y.W. 2008, 'YouTube Looks for the Money Clip', Cable News Network, 25 March, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

YouTube 2008, Most Subscribed, YouTube, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

Wikipedia 2008, Web 2.0, Wikipedia, viewed 23 April 2008, <>.

Earth Day and Google Logos

Earth Day (22 April) is one of the Google regular days that its logo has changed. To commemorate holidays and events, Google has put logos designed for those days.

Well, who has designed them? Professional designer who occasionally employed by Google, from public subscription or someone who works full time for Google?

The logos are created by Dennis Hwang who is a webmaster of Google and also designs Google special logos, but the work for logos is only 20% job of him.

By the way, I'm so proud of his last name that is the same with my one, Hwang, very unusual Korean name.

THE TICKET is coming soon!

Australia's National Tobacco Campaign

The Australian government has campaigned against cigarette smoking since 2006. This campaign has used strong images, such as mouth cancer and heart disease, on the back side of cigarette packs.

This campaign has succeeded. Through this campaign, many smokers, especially in young smokers, have quit their smoking. However, the images are still argued about because of their strength.

Harvard Style

All the university and college students I have known must prefer Harvard style, even though they have never studied at Harvard University.

The Harvard style doesn't mean a special style of studying. It refers to a citation system which is used for writing, such as, essay and report. The citation system is one of the most important elements of the writing, because it clearly and simply helps readers where sources come from.


Now faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see (Hebrews 11:1)

If you believe that you see, it is just 'knowledge'.
If you want something, you must believe that you will get it.

Do not think what you do not have at the moment.

You Make Me Feel So Young

How can you make me feel better?
You probably have a magic sound of voice.

Even though you are elder than me,
your passion is younger than mine.

But, I will make it better,
because you make me feel so young.

Thanks, Frank!

Marx’s Class Conflict and Titanic

How would have the 20th century of the world developed if Karl Marx (1818-1883) was not born? It could plainly be stated that the history of the 20th century received its basic theories from Marx. Half of all people in the world lived in countries of the 20th century that inherited Marx's theories, for one hundred years after Marx's death. Many people agree that Marx has been one of the most important people who still influence world history. One of Marx's theories on 'class conflict' is an important work, along with the theory 'alienation', because through these theories, Marx explained social theory. This essay will examine the theory of Marx's class conflict, focusing on the presence of inequality and oppression in society, associated with the movie, Titanic (1997).

The theory of class conflict explains the human social history between two classes, the exploiting and the exploited. This social theory, one of the major theories developed by Marx, also founded the basis of communism. According to Marx (1848, chap. 1), "the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles" - This is the common theory of Marxism. This statement explains that all existing circumstances of history have caused class conflict and that history has been improved by class conflicts. The class conflict was explained by Marx and Engels through the book, The Communist Manifesto (1848). They pointed out that classes, such as, freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, opposed each other. Moreover, their society was obviously divided by classes. There are two classes defined by the ownership of property in the society, one is "the bourgeoisie, who own the factories and corporations and form the ruling class" and another one is "the proletariat, the mass of workers, who [are] exploited by this ruling class (Berger 1982, p. 44)". Marx believed that capitalism, as a socioeconomic system made the classes, which causes internal tension leading to its destruction and resultantly displaced by communism, so communists must promote the destruction and prepare for displacement (Morrow and Torres 1995, p. 121). Marx's view was economic sight. The two classes have interests in common, thus, they are in conflict with those of another class as a whole. This is turn leads to conflict between individual members of different classes (Berger 1982, p. 45). In addition, Marx did not recognise other systems of classification. Through the Marx's view, only the classes between employer and employee are substantial system of classification and others, which classify classes by religion, race, and nation, are not the system. Marx believed the reason being that they are not natural or useful to humans.

The movie, Titanic (1997) is about the sinking of the Titanic, an Olympic-class passenger liner. It is based on real story of the Titanic; more than 1500 people died and only 700 people rescued on its Maiden voyage from England to New York on 15 April, 1912. The main story of this movie is about the love of two passengers- Jack Dawson and Rose DeWitt Bukater - of different social classes. Through their love, this movie conveys the inequality between first-class passengers and third-class passengers.

There are two parties in the Titanic. Under the deck, is allocated to the poorer, third-class passengers. Their party is fabulous – natural, humanistic, and active, so everybody enjoys it. However, on the deck, the party of the first-class passengers is boring – conventional formalities, burdensome protocol, and cheap conversations. Through these parties, the movie portrays first-class passengers as foolish as well as the first-class passengers being 'worldly-minded' people.

The mother of the heroine, Rose DeWitt Bukater, is primarily concerned with her daughter's marriage to Karl- a rich man from the steel industry- in order to sustain their depreciating family. Karl gives a big diamond to Rose DeWitt Bukater in order to interest her mind. Jack Dawson saves Rose's life when Rose attempts suicide, later being invited to a party for first-class passengers. One of the first-class passengers, Molly Brown, previously a poor woman who became rich from the mine industry, introduces the people in the party; Duff Gordon, who earns lots of money from women's flashily and Guggenheim, who travels with his immoral girlfriend. During the party, when the conversation goes to the theory of Freud, psychologist, the shipowner asks, "Who is Freud? Is he a passenger?". This movie portrays the high-class people as foolish people without any 'basic' knowledge.

Although Jack and Rose are of different social classes, they fall in love. Meanwhile, the Titanic collides with an iceberg. During the Titanic’s sinking, the crew lock steel doors under the deck, in order to blockade the path of third-class passengers, who want to get onto lifeboats. The crew also threaten to kill passengers with guns because the priority for boarding life-boats is allocated to first-class passengers. While only one lifeboat remains, the third-class passengers break the barriers and doors, intruding onto the deck. At the same time, a member of ship-crew named Willy kills a third-class passenger then kills himself. The passenger killed was a friend of Jack. Additionally portrayed is a third-class woman, who unable to board a lifeboat, gives her children sleeping pills, further inducing sleep by telling a story. Moreover, Karl- Rose's fiancĂ©- bribes the crew and uses a girl, in tears because she lost her parents, to get on a lifeboat, forcing a third-class passenger out of the boat using an oar.

On the one hand, the shipowner, who does not know Freud, also unfairly gets the lifeboat for women and children. Meanwhile, Willy, the crew-member, looks at him with a mocking laughter and anger, while lowering the boat. The captain, who has administrative responsibilities and experiences, seemed to have plenty of confidence in himself earlier, but later loses his resolve and does not make any order during the two hours of the Titanic's sinking. Showing his role allegorically, he is portrayed to die in the ship’s steering room.

On the other hand, the crew, including Willy, maintain their role aboard until the last moment. In fact, extremely few crew who row life-boats, survive. The members of a string quartet forego personal survival and play music until their death.

The 700 first-class passengers, as the ‘chosen people’ on lifeboats, see the final moments of the Titanic and the other 1500 people, which descend into the North Atlantic Ocean, as despairing third-class passengers. The sinking resulted primarily in the death of women, consisting of 45% in the third-class, 16% in the second-class, with only 3% in the first-class.

In conclusion, the scenes of the Titanic prove that "history is based on unending class conflict (Berger 1982, p. 44)" as Marx stated. This movie conveys that the inequality and unfair treatment between the bourgeoisie and proletariat must be corrected. Maximilian Weber, who was interest in the inequality of Marx's time, defined the class as equivalent to 'life chance' (Bendix 1977, p. 85). The differences between the classes provide value to decisions in the span of human life. The passengers of the Titanic had their destinies decided through classes. The sinking of Titanic, which combined the destiny of survivors with the deceased, proves resolutely that 'class' is indeed, 'life chance'.

Bendix, R. 1977, Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Berger, A. A. 1982, Media Analysis Techniques, Sage Publications, Beverley Hills.

Marx, K. & Engels, E. 1848, 'Bourgeois and Proletarians', Manifesto of the Communist Party, viewed 1 April 2008, <>.

Morrow, R. A. & Torres, C. A. 1995, Social Theory and Education: A Critique of Theories of Social and Cultural Reproduction, State University of New York Press, Albany.

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